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Bridge linking passenger terminal or pier to aircraft door.
An incident associated with the operation of an aircraft in which the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft and would normally require major repair or replacement of the a affected component. This does not include engine failure or damage, its cowlings or accessories, damage limited to propellers, wing tips, antennas, tires, brakes, fairings, small ducts or punctures in the aircraft skin. It also occurs when an aircraft is missing or completely inaccessible.
ACI - Airport Council International
Geneva-based international body representing the interests of some 1,200-member airports.
Aircraft, Crew, Maintenance and Insurance. A type of lease normally, but not always, between two airlines, where the leaser provides the aircraft, one or more complete crews including their salaries, all maintenance for the aircraft, and hull insurance for the aircraft itself. Sometimes he will provide third-party liability cover. ACMI charges will be by the hour, but with a minimum number of hours per month guaranteed.
See Lease, ACMI.
ACMI wet rate
Charge, normally in US$ per block hour, for an ACMI lease.
Ad hoc cargo charter
A non-scheduled non-common carrier cargo service hired to move a shipment. See Scheduled freight service.
Ad hoc carrier
Cargo carrier offering aircraft for ad hoc charters.
Ad hoc charter
See Charter, Ad hoc.
Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast, a navigation and collision-avoidance system.
A certificate issued by a relevant aviation authority in relation to a particular aircraft used to indicate compliance with the appropriate requirements concerning aircraft type, airworthiness, etc.
Any property carried on an aircraft other than stores, COMAT and baggage. This includes freight, mail or express items. Also known as aircargo and airfreight.
An aircraft intended for the movement of passengers and cargo sharing main-deck accommodation during the flight.
An aircraft, either constructed, permanently converted or temporarily converted from passenger service, which is carrying or capable of carrying goods or property with no passenger complement.
Aircraft flyable but unpainted, unfurnished and basically equipped.
Building constructed or converted to allow the maintenance or storage of aircraft.
Aircraft movements per hour
This is the amount of traffic that the Air Traffic Control, runways and taxiways can support in any given hour.
Aircraft On Ground (AOG)
A situation in which mechanical failure prevents an aircraft from moving or taking off. This is not normally at its regular maintenance base.
A platform of standard dimensions on which goods are assembled and secured before being loaded as a complete unit on to an aircraft.
An aircraft intended primarily for the movement of passengers. Any cargo will be secured in lower deck holds.
Aircraft prepared for service
Fully equipped and serviced aircraft without useable fuel and payload.
A designated area on an apron intended to be used for aircraft parking.
Aircraft tow tractor
Vehicle used maneuver aircraft on ground by towing and pushing when the aircraft is not powering movement with its own engines.
Aircraft towbarless tractor
Aircraft tow tractor, which does not utilize a tow bar.
A series of weights, taken with or without various loads, of an aircraft during various stages of its operation. See AUW, MLW, MRW, MTOW, MZFW, OEW, Ramp Weight.
An aircraft's structure without power plants or aircraft systems.
The carriage of personnel or supplies by air.
A private or state company operating owned or hired aircraft for paying passengers or cargo on a scheduled or charter basis.
Airplane drain plugs
White or brown fittings located in the lower fuselage skin to drain fluid from the aircraft's bilges.
An area of land that is used, or intended to be used, for the landing and take-off aircraft including associated buildings and infrastructure. See Terminal.
Airport, all cargo
An airport solely for the use of scheduled or ad hoc cargo aircraft operations. Can be a common carrier airport or non-common for the use of one company.
An airport at which an aircraft may land if a landing at the intended airport becomes inadvisable. If an aircraft must turn around in flight, this may be the original departure airport.
Airport approach lights
Lights indicating the desired approach to a runway, usually of sodium or high intensity type, laid in a precise pattern of a lead-in line with crossbars at set distances from the runway threshold. Types of approach lighting systems are: I) Approach lighting system with sequenced flashing lights II) PAPI-Precision Approach Path indicator system III) Runway alignment indicator lights IV) Sequenced flashing lead-in lights
Capacity is measured from the combined results of the performance of two or more of the following measures-terminal, apron and aircraft movements.
An airport predominantly used for charter flight services with little, if any, scheduled services.
Charges levied by airport owners or operators to airlines for landing an aircraft. These charges can include landing fees, take-off fees, airside charges and landside charges. These are the traditional sources of revenue for airports. However, within the last 20 years, rental revenues from airport concessions and tenants have almost become as important a source of revenue.
An airport solely for the use of aircraft arriving from, or departing to, another airport in the same country.
Highest point of an airport's usable runways, measured in feet from mean sea level. See Touch down zone elevation.
An international airport at which, provided they remain within a designated area until removal by air to a point outside the territory of the country, crew, passenger, baggage, cargo, mail and stores may be disembarked or unloaded, may remain and may be trans-shipped, without being subject to any Customs charges or dues or, except in special circumstances, be searched. See Bonded Stores, Free Trade Zone.
An airport serving the role of being the airport that passengers and cargo use to first enter a country.
An airport designated by the contracting country in whose territory it is situated as an airport of entry and departure for international transport, where formalities required by Customs, immigration, public health, animal and plant quarantine etc are carried out.
Partly-colored board defining on airfields; I) Boundary markers-limits of landing areas II) Taxi-channel markers-limits of taxi tracks. See Taxiway lighting III) Obstruction markers-limits of ground hazards IV) Runway visual markers – situated at equal distance by which visibility is gauged in bad weather.
Airport meteorological minima
The minimum cloud base and visibility in which landings and take-off at an airport are permitted.
A private company or government, regional or local authority department in charge of an airport operation.
A private company or government, regional or local authority department that owns an airport.
Co-ordination of arrivals and departures of planned flight operations at a given airport or group of airports.
Airport surface detection equipment
Radar equipment designed to detect all principal features on the surface of an airport, including aircraft and vehicles.
The movement area of an airport, adjacent terrain, buildings or apron area, access to which is regulated and controlled. Normally restricted to airport personnel, aircraft crew and departing and transiting passengers. See Landside.
A short stairway built into or added to an aircraft, for use in embarkation or disembarkation. Folded up as part of a door or folded on board after use.
Unidirectional landing area, usually of grass or of a makeshift nature.
A document made out by shipper as evidence of the contract between shipper and carrier. Not a deed of title to the consignment. Sometimes Air Waybill.
Describes an aircraft which meets all relevant statutory requirements of the registering country and any other required to give authority to its operation. See certificate of Airworthiness.
An airport solely for the use of scheduled or ad hoc cargo aircraft operations. Can be a common carrier airport or solely for the use of one company.
See Airport, alternate.
See approach lights.
A defined area on an airport intended to accommodate aircraft for the purpose of loading or unloading passengers or cargo, re-fueling, parking or maintenance.
Airside bus especially utilized to move passengers and crew from airport building to/from aircraft. See Shuttle bus.
The number of aircraft handled per hour, which depends on the number of parking stands and the capacity of ground handling agencies to service the aircraft.
Portion of a taxiway system located on an apron and intended to provide a through taxi route across an apron. See Taxiway.
ATC-Air Traffic Control
A service operated by an appropriate authority to promote the safe, orderly and expeditious flow of air traffic.
AUW-All up Weight
Total weight of aircraft under defined conditions or at a specific time during flight. Not to be confused with MTOW.
Auxiliary power unit
Item carried on an aircraft for tasks such as main engine starting, ground air-conditioning etc.
Taxiing along a runway in the opposite direction to take-off and landing.
Personal property belonging to passengers or crew carried on an aircraft in connection with a journey. Can be checked or unchecked baggage. Also known as luggage.
Equipment used in passenger terminal to bring passengers' baggage for collection from apron.
A towed vehicle used for ramp transport of baggage.
Baggage involuntarily or inadvertently separated from passengers and crew.
Bare Hull Charter
Another name for a dry lease. See lease, dry.
Bottom of container or pallet, which comes into contact with the floor.
Basic operating weight
MTOW minus payload.
Equipment using a belt to load bulk freight, baggage and mail into the aircraft. Can be self-propelled or trailer-mounted.
Tanks in an aircraft designed to trap non-cargo liquids such as condensation in flight and on the ground. Emptied by means of airplane drain plugs.
Collision between an aircraft and birds.
Measures taken at an airport to avoid bird strikes.
A physical barrier used to direct or dissipate jet or propeller blast at an airport.
Chargeable hour for which an aircraft is leased to a lessee during a wet lease (sixty minutes of block time).
Time elapsed from the moment an aircraft starts to leave its loading point to the moment it comes to rest at its destination. Also known as block-to-block, chock-to-chock.
Crew and passengers entering an aircraft prior to flight.
Card issued at check-in giving authority to board.
Aviation fuel imported into a country for use only in international services on which no tax is paid.
Warehousing under the direct or indirect control of Customs authorities where dutiable goods are stored prior to export after transshipment or entry into the country, upon which the duty will be paid.
Checks made on passengers and cargo attempting to enter a country. Normally include visa examination, passport control and immigration formalities for passengers and import and export licenses for air cargo.
Lights defining the boundary of the landing area. Can also mean the lights marking the perimeter of the airport's land area.
A report on conditions on the airport movement area providing a pilot with a degree/quality of braking expected: braking action is reported in terms of good, medium, fair, poor or nil.
An individual or company who, for a fee, locates and arranges the hire of a cargo aircraft, with or without crew, for a client.
All cargo not packed in containers or on a pallet.
Self-drive belt conveyor vehicle for loading bulk cargo into an aircraft.
See Crew, cabin.
The right, rarely given, to a foreign air carrier to move passengers, mail or cargo within the territory of a country between domestic locations .See liberalization.
General term given to cargo space and available lift from a given aircraft.
See Air Cargo.
Passenger or other non-cargo aircraft permanently converted to carry cargo.
Loading bay of a cargo terminal.
Door in aircraft designed to take freight, vehicles or containers.
Cargo door, nose
Cargo door in nose of aircraft hinged to swing upwards or to one side, to allow easier access to general cargo or access for cargo too large to pass through side cargo door.
Cargo door, rear
Cargo door in rear of aircraft often hinged to become ramp for access. Some aircraft types open at the rear by swinging the tail housing to one side.
Cargo door, side
Cargo door in portside of aircraft (generally).
Cargo ground handling
Function of moving cargo from terminal to aircraft side and vice versa and at all times the cargo is on the airport's premises. Can be performed by the air carrier second-party airline providing such services, the airport authority or an independent ground handling company.
General term for the area of an aircraft where cargo is stowed for a journey. Can be entire inside space on a freighter that space not used by passengers on a Combi, or lower deck area in a passenger aircraft.
Mobile equipment with elevating platforms and powered rollers for loading and unloading ULDs on aircraft.
Airside area upon which freighter aircraft are parked for loading or unloading of cargo.
Term sometimes used to group air cargo operations at an airport, especially newly constructed warehousing developments.
Customs document allowing the temporary importation of goods without duty, conditional on the goods being re-exported in the same state as when they entered the country. These goods cannot be altered, used in manufacture, or disposed of without the duty being paid ad if they had been imported normally.
Certificate of Airworthiness
Certificate that an individual aircraft meets all relevant legal and safety standards.
FAA regulations producing stringent limits on aircraft noise and emission. Failure to comply with the standards will prevent an aircraft landing at an airport where the regulations are in force.
Charter, ad hoc
A non-scheduled non-common carrier cargo service hired to move a single shipment. See scheduled freight service.
See Airport, charter.
See passenger charter.
See Ad hoc cargo charter, passenger charter, scheduled freight service, passenger, scheduled service.
Where an intermediary such as a freight forwarder charters an aircraft and re-sells capacity to third parties.
Airline function where intending travelers present tickets for seat reservations and obtain boarding authority.
A compartment to accommodate pilots and other crewmembers. Now known as a flight deck.
COMAT-Company owned material
An airline's own property such as spare-parts, station supplies, ticket stock, etc, carried in the airline's own aircraft.
One or more pieces of cargo accepted by a carrier at one time and one time and one address, moving as one lot under an AWB to one destination.
Personnel required to attend to the needs of passengers on a flight. Also known as flight attendants.
Personnel required for the immediate safe handling in flight of an aircraft.
Personnel required for the handling of an airport on the ground.
Cross wind component
Surface wind component at right angles to runway centerline.
Maximum use of available space in an aircraft.
A government organization fulfilling four main functions: i) Levying and collecting taxes, duties and charges against imported and exported items with no duty-free allowance;
ii) Levying and collecting taxes, duties and charges against imported and exported items exceeding a duty-free allowance;
iii) Preventing the importation of banned, prohibited and illegal material in air cargo shipments and passengers' luggage;
iv) Collection and collating of statistical information from point of exit or entry.
Weight equal to 112lbs or 50.80kgs; (US) Weight equal to 100lbs or 45.36kgs.
Articles or substances, which are capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety or property. Significant and strict local, national and international laws and regulatory rules govern the handling, storage and movement of such substances to and at airports.
Dangerous goods accident
An occurrence associated with and related to the transport of dangerous goods by air, which results in fatal or serious injury to person or major property damage.
Dangerous goods classes
Nine international classes, which highlight the categories of different types of articles:
2.1 Flammable gases
2.2 Non-Flammable gases
2.3 Toxic gases
4.1 Flammable solids
4.2 Spontaneously combustible substances
4.3 Water reactive substances
5.1 Oxidizing substances
5.2 Organic peroxides
Class6- Toxic substances
6.1 Poisonous substances
6.2 Infectious substances
Class9-Miscellaneous material, including that which can only be flown on a cargo aircraft.
Term for cargo hold under the main deck.
Main floor of aircraft forming base of upper hold in freighter aircraft or where passengers and cargo are placed in a Combi.
Removal of ice accretion on an aircraft at an airport – can be done by use of fluids, heating systems and expanding rubber membranes.
Charge for storage in an airline warehouse or other warehouse, which accrues after a given time, for consignments not collected. Also applies to delay caused to an aircraft (eg by charterer).
See Passenger departure lounge.
ATC procedures established for an aircraft departing from an airport.
Exact time at which an aircraft becomes airborne, an important factor in air traffic control. Can also be time when an aircraft moves away from the terminal at the commencement of taxiing prior to take-off. Colloquially known as 'off chocks'.
Removal of domestic laws, which liberalizes the business environment concerning airports and airline operations. Associated with activities in the United States in the 1980s. See Privatization.
The leaving of an aircraft after a landing, except by crew or passengers continuing on the next stage of the same through flight. See embarkation.
Act of proceeding to an airport other than one at which landing was intended.
See Airport, domestic.
Height from ground to aircraft doorsill.
The time an aircraft is on the ground at an airport, except for when it is undergoing turnaround. Also colloquially a term for the time of landing.
See lease, dry.
Cost, normally per month, of a dry lease. See lease, dry.
Regime of goods available only to passengers on airside where goods are priced without a country's duty on condition they are exported with the passenger.
Traditionally this is the amount in monetary value or actual quantity available to individual qualifying international passengers. These goods are only available airside or, increasing, in flight.
Time spent at an airport by would-be passengers between check-in and departure.
Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System.
The entry of an aircraft by crew or passengers.
Emergency power unit
Power-producing part of aircraft not used for propulsion.
See Extended Range Twin (engine) Operations.
See Extended Twin Over-water Passenger Preparations.
Extended Range Twin (engine) Operations
Sometimes referred to as EROPS, this is a routing not more than given flight time of 120 or 180 minutes from a useable alternative airport.
Extended Twin Over-water Passenger Operations
The ability of an aircraft to operate over large stretches of water, such as the Pacific. Also known blackly by pilots as Engines Turning or Passengers Swimming.
See Range, ferry.
See Hazmat emergency response.
See Crew, flight.
Maximum weight the aircraft floor can bear.
Static and dynamic loads imposed by the payload.
Foreign object damage.
See Airport, free.
There are ten international aviation freedoms:
i) First freedom: To over-fly one country en-route to another. ii) Second freedom: To make a technical stop in another country. iii) Third freedom: To carry passengers/cargo from the home country to another. iv) Fourth freedom: To carry passengers/cargo to the home country from another. v) Fifth freedom: To carry passengers/cargo between two countries by an airline of a third on a route with origin/destination in its home country vi) Sixth freedom: To carry passengers/cargo between two countries by an airline of a third on two routes connecting in its home country. vii) Seventh freedom: To carry passengers/cargo between two countries by an airline of a third on a route outside its home country. viii) Eighth freedom or Cabotage: To carry passengers/cargo within a country by an airline of another country on a route with origin/destination in its home country. ix) Ninth freedom or Stand-Alone Cabotage: To carry passengers/cargo within a country by an airline of another country. x) True Domestic: To carry passengers/cargo by an airline within its home country.
See FTZ-Free Trade Zone.
See Cargo door.
See Hub, freight.
See Aircraft, freighter.
FTZ-Free Trade Zone
An industrial area in which manufactures are permitted to import raw materials or semi-assemblies for manufacturing purposes which, provides they leave the zone by air to a point outside the territory of the country, do not incur import duties.
Rate at which fuel is burnt during a flight, normally given in tones per hour. This is a vital element in the cost of chartering or operating a freighter aircraft.
Fuel available for propulsion.
See specific fuel consumption.
Term used to describe location of tanks holding aviation fuel at an airport.
A point of access to the apron from the terminal at an airport.
Gate hold procedure
A procedure to hold aircraft at the gate or other ground location whenever departures are expected to be delayed by more than five minutes.
See Airport, gateway.
GPU-Ground Power Unit
Equipment used to power an aircraft to run vital services while stationary on the ground.
See Aircraft, green.
Greeters and Weepers
Colloquial name for people waiting landside for incoming passengers and seeing off passengers.
See Crew, ground.
Ground support equipment
All the handling facilities employed to service an aircraft at an airport-such as tractors, steps, fuelling tanks, food and cleaning supplies.
Prevailing horizontal visibility near the earth's surface as reported by an accredited observer.
See aircraft hangar.
Another term for dangerous goods. Also known as Hazardous material. See dangerous goods.
Hazardous Materials On-scene Incident Commander
Hazardous Materials Specialist
Hazardous Materials Technician
See Hazmat emergency response team.
International warning panel designed to alert as to the dangers, characteristics and appropriate accident response to hazardous chemicals and liquids.
Another term for hazardous material.
Hazmat emergency response
There are five levels of response to a Hazmat incident recognized by the FAA;
i) First Responders-Awareness (FRA)- Trained individuals able to recognize when a Hazmat incident has occurred or could potentially occur and alert the appropriate authorities. They do not deal with an incident. ii) First Responders-Operations (FRO)- Trained individuals able to contain a Hazmat spillage or incident, to prevent it spreading and prevent exposure. They do not deal with an incident. iii) Hazardous Materials Technician (HMT)- Trained individuals able to aggressively respond to a spillage or potential spillage in order to stop it. They will approach the point of release in order to plug, patch or otherwise close it. They receive an extra 24 hours of training beyond an FRO. iv) Hazardous Materials Specialist (HMS)- Trained individuals also able to respond aggressively to a spillage or potential spillage, but with a specialization training in particular aspects of responses, such as chlorine releases. They receive an extra 24 hours of training beyond an FRO. v) Hazardous Materials on-scene incident commander (HMOIC)- Person in overall command of all activities during an emergency response. Can also co-ordinate resources outside the airline. vi) Hazmat emergency response team- Personnel trained in the proper procedures to deal with an incident, an accident or potential accident, involving hazardous material.
High density rule
US government regulation which caps operations at Washington National, New York's LaGuardia and JFK and Chicago O'Hare airports.
An airline's operation, which utilizes major services to connect key hub airports, with minor services then connecting with minor destinations unable to support major services themselves in terms of traffic.
An airport used, normally by an integrator or scheduled freight airline, to sort and disperse goods through its network from incoming flights. Can also be accessed by road services operated by the airline or its agents. A hub can be an exclusive freight-only airport or a facility at a general airport.
An airport used to permit passengers to transfer to a second flight to reach a final destination. See Hub-and-Spoke.
Device to limit noise levels produced by aircraft engines. See chapter III.
To fit a hush-kit on an existing engine.
IAPA International Airline Passenger Association Organization
With the aim of promoting safety in airline travel, improving passenger handling and comfort
IATA International Air Transport Association Organization
Whose aims are to promote safe, regular and economical air transport as well as providing means of collaboration among international air transport companies. Its specialist publication function established published standards for the handling of dangerous goods and livestock by air.
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
A UN agency charged with the objective to develop the principles and techniques of international air navigation and to foster planning and development of international civil air transport.
Bottomless shell made of fiberglass, metal etc, conforming to aircraft dimensions, produced to cover the maximum useable area of a pallet to which it is secured in flight.
ILS Instrument Landing Systems
Aids for an instrument approach to an airport.
There are four main types of insurance involved with most common air freighter operations matters. i) Hull insurance- This is taken out by the owner of the aircraft in order to protect his investment against damage to, or loss of, the aircraft itself. A charterer should never be involved with this as it is usually the responsibility of the owner, and its premiums should be already included in any charter or lease price. ii) Third party liability- This is to protect the owner or operator against claims that may be made by other people, for example if the undercarriage damaged the roof of a house when the aircraft was landing, or if the wingtip hit another aircraft while maneuvering on the ground. Once again, it is the owner's responsibility to provide this cover all the time his crews are flying the aircraft. However, on dry leases the owner may not want to be responsible for events, which take place, while the aircraft is under someone else's control, so in that case the third party may be required to provide cover. Amounts of liability that third party insurance covers can be substantial. iii) War Risk insurance- This is applied by insurance companies and underwriters if the aircraft intends to operate into countries or areas considered by them to be dangerous. If the aircraft operates to these areas without the additional war-risk cover, then the Hull and Third-party cover may become invalid. And thus the whole operation becomes illegal. The cover can be taken out for a specific period, or on a per flight basis. iv) Cargo insurance- International regulations demand that an airline will provide insurance cover for all cargo carried on its aircraft, up to a specified limit. This limit is set by the Warsaw convention, and the cargo liability currently stands at US$20 per kilogram of cargo carried it applies throughout the entire period during which the cargo is in the care of that airline and covers theft, damage, loss or total destruction in the event of an accident. If a customer feels its cargo deserves a higher rate of cover than US$20 per kilo, then it is their responsibility to take out that additional insurance.
A non-common-carrier freight service controlled by a published timetable and operating to a network of stations exclusively to its own benefit and providing liveried vehicles and staff to manage the entire transport of the consignment.
See Airport, international.
Those parts of an airport not considered airside. Access is open to all persons legally entitled to be at an airport, subject to local and national laws.
Large aircraft (US)
Aircraft over 12,500lbs maximum certificated take-off weight.
Aircraft, Crew, Maintenance and insurance lease.
Lease of an aircraft without flight crew. Sometimes called a Bare Hull Charter. It is the lease of the aircraft only, without crew. In this case, the lessee has to supply his own crew (with all the associated costs), provide all his own maintenance, and obtain own insurance coverage. It is normally charged at a fixed rate per month, plus an hourly charge for engine overhauls or replacements, and major checks.
Hire of aircraft from another carrier or leaser complete with flight crew, where major servicing is carried out by the owner but with hirer's logo and insignia temporarily applied.
See Lower Explosive Limit.
Political and economic trend to remove regulatory and legal barriers to any given airport or airline operation. Common examples include 'Open Skies' agreements, breaking of monopolies in service provision, authority to start airlines in competition to established carriers, allowing foreign carriers to provide cabotage between on routes between domestic airports. See Privatization.
Load classification number
A number defining the load-carrying capacity of the paved areas of an airport without cracking or permanent deflection.
Revenue ton-miles (RTM) preformed as a percentage of RTM available.
Load factor (SI)
Revenue tonne-kms (RTK) performed as a percent age of RTK available.
Detailed inventory of load on the aircraft.
See Range, load.
Chart displaying correct locations of cargo in transport aircraft.
Maximum aircraft envelope for the purposes of stowage inside the aircraft, having taken into account the required clearance between the aircraft wall and the load. See Maximum aircraft envelope.
Detailed plan of cargo floor and under-floor holds on which responsible officer marks position and masses of all cargo and final center of gravity position.
The time at any airport using the time zone appropriate to the location of the airport.
See deck, lower.
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL)
This is the lowest point at which enough vapors have been released from a given hazardous liquid to cause a fire when in contact with an ignition source.
See deck, main.
Runway most used for take-off and landings.
Maximum aircraft envelope
Maximum space available in the interior of the aircraft, less a given tolerance, from the manufacturer's specifications.
Maximum landing weight.
Runways, taxiways and other areas of an airport outlined for taxiing, take-off and landing of aircraft, exclusive of loading ramps and parking areas.
Maximum ramp weight.
Maximum take of weight (MRW minus taxi and run-up fuel).
An airport operator /authority managing more than one airport within the same metropolitan area.
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight (MTOW minus useable fuel and other consumables).
See North American free trade association.
Navigational aids, especially electronic, situated at airports. Typical examples include Airport Rotating Beacon; DME Distance Measuring equipment; SDF Simplified Directional Facility; LDA Location Distance Available; LOC ILS Localizer; PAPI Precision Approach Path Indicator system; REIL Runway End Identification Light; SID Standard Instrument Departure; TACAN Tactical Air Navigation; VASI Visual Approach Slope Indicator; VOR VHF Omni Range; VORTAC, where VOR and TACAN aids are located together at an airport Navaid classes VOR, TACAN and VORTAC aids are classed according to operational use of airports – t=terminal, l=low altitude; h=high altitude.
Operations between hours of sunset and sunrise.
Noise abatement climb
Means of flying an aircraft from an airport so as to climb rapidly until the built-up area is reached and thereafter reducing power to maintain climb until the area is over-flown or 5,000 ft is reached.
The contour beneath an aircraft of constant noise level measured in decibels.
Laws concerning permitted noise levels at airports aimed at preventing disturbance to local residents, most widely felt by aircraft operators who must reduce noise levels from aircraft and airports which are restricting the type of aircraft able to land. Some airports are actively marketing the lack of noise restrictions as a user benefit. See chapter III.
Noise restrictions local
National and international laws concerning permitted noise levels at airports.
North American Free Trade Association
Association of USA, Canada and Mexico to promote a free trade area between the three countries similar to the EU.
Notice containing information essential to airport personnel connected with flight operations.
Operating Empty Weight.
Description of cargo exceeding standard dimensions.
See Aircraft pallet.
See Runways, parallel.
A person, other than a crew member, destined to fly from an airport, either fare-paying or non-fare-paying.
Aircraft hired to fly (normally) non-IATA regulated seasonal or ad hoc services. These services are closely associated with high volume, low yield passenger business to holiday destinations. See Airport, charter.
Passenger flying on a non-scheduled ticket.
The location where a passenger presents a valid air ticket and is booked as flying.
Passenger departure lounge
Area of an airport airside where passengers are held prior to boarding a scheduled or charter aircraft before commencing their journey. Can also be an area exclusive to ticket holders of a specific airline or class of travel.
Passenger handling agent
An agent appointed by an airline to provide check-in, baggage handling, specialist passenger assistance and flight information at an airport. See Self-handling.
See Hub, passenger.
Passenger loading bridges
Equipment connecting terminal building to aircraft doors to allow passengers to board and leave aircraft.
Passenger, scheduled service
Service operated by airline conforming to a published schedule.
Passengers arriving from a first country who remain airside at an airport prior to an international flight to a third country. Not subject to passport or immigration procedures.
Disposable load generating revenue. Also known as cargo payload.
On left hand side of an aircraft looking towards the front.
Disposal of state assets such as airports to the private sector. Airport privatizations are limited but growing in popularity. Examples include some British and recent Australian airport operations.
Designation used to indicate the ability of an aircraft to be changed quickly from passenger to cargo use and vice versa.
Area where servicing and boarding of aircraft is possible.
Ramp equipment operations
Operations responsible for providing ground support equipment to aircraft, such as supply of drinking water and cleaning services.
Maximum weight of aircraft at start of flight (MTOW plus taxi and run-up fuel).
Distance an aircraft can fly or is permitted to fly with a specified load and (usually) after making allowances for specified maneuvers such as diversions, stand-off, go-around. Etc.
Range an aircraft can fly empty between one point and another.
Range an aircraft can fly while carrying payload.
Rapid exit taxiway
Taxiway connected to a runway at an acute angle are achieved on other taxiways, thereby minimizing runway occupancy times. See Taxiway.
Rear cargo door
See cargo door, rear.
See road feeder service.
Road feeder service
A service offered by a scheduled cargo operator to move goods to and from the aircraft and/or terminal by road service. Allows a carrier to offer services to a city to which they do not fly aircraft. Some such devices are allocated an airline flight number.
RIV-Rapid Intervention Vehicle
An emergency vehicle intended to provide an effective means of fire suppression pending the arrival of major fire accident units.
Revenue tonne-kms. See load factor.
Revenue tone-miles. See load factor.
A defined rectangular area on a land airport prepared for the landing and take-off run of aircraft along its length. Normally numbered in relation to their magnetic direction, rounded off to the nearest 10 degree; for example, runway 18 would be referred to as runway 20.
Runway crossing procedure
Procedures to be followed by aircraft and ground vehicles required to cross active runways following instructions issued by the ground movement controller.
Runway end safety area
An area symmetrical about the extended runway centerline and adjacent to the end of the strip meant to reduce damage to an aircraft in the event of that aircraft in the event of that aircraft undershooting or over-running the runway.
Runway in use
Any runway or runways being used for take-offs or landing. When multiple runways are used, they are all considered active runways.
Typical runway lighting systems are:
I) Center lightning - flush centerline lights spaced at intervals; II) Edge limits - lights having a prescribed angle used to define the lateral limits of a runway; III) Guard lights - provided at taxiways on access points to prevent inadvertent incursion by aircraft and vehicles.
See Main runway.
All-weather markings on runways served by non-visual precision approach aids and on runways having special operational requirements.
Runway markings, basic
Markings used for operations when visual flight rules consist of centerline marking and runway direction numbers.
Runway markings, instrument
Markings on runways served by non-visual navigation aids, intended for landing under instrument weather conditions.
The usable limit of a runaway.
Runway visibility by observer
Horizontal distance at which light of about 25 candle power at night or a dark object against the horizon in the daytime can be seen by an observer near the end of the runway.
Two or more runways at the same airport whose centerlines are parallel. In addition to numbers, such runways are designated L (Left), R (Right); for three runways. L(Left); R (Right) and C (Centre).
RVR - Runway Visual Range
In bad weather the horizontal distance at which black and white markers of standard size are visible, the figure being transmitted by ATC to pilots.
See cargo door, side.
Scheduled freight carrier
A common-carrier freight service controlled by a published timetable and operating to a network of stations.
Scheduled freight service
Scheduled service, passenger
See Passenger, scheduled service.
European Union agreement where certain EU countries allow travelers to move between their countries with absolutely no border controls. Not all EU countries are signatories. See Border controls.
Platform for loading cargo, containers, etc by means of cross arms jointed in the middle to take the appearance of scissors.
Combination of measures and human and material resources intended to safeguard civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference.
When an airline performs a task, such as check-in and ground handling, for which service providers make an alternative available.
Sustained by a person at an airport in an accident which requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours within seven days of injury; results in fractures of any bone, except simple fracture; involves lacerations; involves injury to internal organs; involves second or third degree burns; involves exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation.
Short take off and landing
Landside bus connecting outlying terminals in a multi-terminal airport, car parks to terminal buildings or operating between terminals and hotels.
External covering of an aircraft's structure.
Small aircraft (UK)
Aircraft between 17,000 kgs and 40,000 kgs.
Small aircraft (US)
Aircraft tare-weight 12,500 lbs or less, maximum certificated take-off weight.
Specific fuel consumption
Rate at which fuel is consumed divided by power and thrust developed-this becomes a measure of engine efficiency. It is also used as a basis for the hiring charge for the aircraft.
See charter, split.
Stand alone cabotage
On the right hand side of an aircraft looking towards the front.
An airport in an airline's network other than main network airport. Can also be known as an out-station.
Short take off and landing characteristic aircraft requiring shorter than normal runway lengths.
Stop and go
Procedure where an aircraft will land make a complete stop on the runway and commence take-off from that point.
Stop for non-traffic purposes
A landing for any purpose other than taking on or discharging passengers, cargo or mail.
A planned landing for the re-fueling of an aircraft.
Defined rectangular area at the end of the take-off run available, prepared and designated as a suitable area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the event of a discontinued take-off or overrun landing procedure.
Articles loaded on to an aircraft at an airport of a readily consumable nature for use or sale during flight, including commissary supplies.
An area of specified dimensions enclosing a runway and taxiway to provide for the safety of aircraft operations.
Capacity hired by an airline from a supplemental carrier or other aviation source.
A carrier offering capacity which a scheduled carrier can hire to supplement its capacity during peak periods.
Surface movement guidance and control systems
For use under low visibility conditions at larger airports. Pilot self-interpreted system may consist of selectively operated taxiway lights and warning and stop signs.
Surface Movement Radar
SMR's role in Europe not yet covered by IACO provisions.
Surface visibility (US)
Visibility observed from eye-level above the ground.
Movement of an aircraft under its own power at an airport.
Defined path established for taxiing of aircraft, providing a link between parts of an airport. See Apron Taxiway, Rapid Exit taxi-way.
Typical taxiway lighting systems are:
i) Taxi-holding position lights; ii) Taxiway stop bars.
Time between overhauls.
The most advanced version of Traffic Alert and collision Avoidance system.
see stop, technical.
A building on an airport which links airside and landside, through which passengers embarking and disembarking pass, and appropriate airports services are available. Also a building on an airport where air cargo being flown or received is stored, customs examination is possible, consolidations built up or broken down and/or cargo is transshipped to another destination.
The number of passengers per hour, which is influenced by movement rates through various junctions such as security, customs, immigration.
Diagram showing the planned method of securing particular types and items of cargo in flight.
Mechanism designed to secure pallets or containers in flight.
A period of time allocated to an aircraft to take off.
Take off gross weight.
Touch and go
When an aircraft land and departs on a runway without stopping exiting the runway.
The point at which an aircraft first makes contact with the landing surface.
The first 3,000ft of the runway beginning at the threshold.
Touchdown Zone elevation
The highest elevation in the first 3,000ft of the landing surface.
See aircraft tow tractor.
Traffic flow prescribed for aircraft landing at, taxiing on or taking off from an airport.
See Passenger, transit.
Area where cargo arriving from a first country which remains airside at an airport prior to an international flight to a third country. Not subject to customs.
A self-propelled vehicle equipped with a powered roller platform for hauling ULDs between the cargo terminal and the loader at the aircraft and vice versa.
Truck mounted stairs
Stairs mounted on a truck capable of being moved to an aircraft's side to facilitate passenger boarding or leaving.
Time between the moment aircraft engines are stopped at the terminal or ramp, ground support operations completed and next load of passengers and/or cargo is loaded and engines started for next flight.
ULD-Unit load device
A standard-sized aircraft container unit used to facilitate rapid loading and unloading of aircraft having compatible handling and restraint systems.
Four-digit number assigned to dangerous substances or group of substances by the United Nations to facilitate safer handling. See Dangerous goods.
A number of items of cargo in a single box or container or loading on a pallet.
Percentage of time during which use of a runway or system of runway is not restricted by cross wind component. See Cross wind component.
Total mass of fuel consumable in flight; usually some 95%-98% of total capacity.
Payload plus useable fuel.
A vehicle used for towing baggage carts or trailers between passenger or cargo terminals and the aircraft.
Depth of surface water the would result from the melting of ice and snow at an airport.
See lease, wet.
Zero fuel weight
See aircraft weight.
Weight equal to 112lbs or 50.80kg
Weight equal to 100lbs or 45.36kg
Liquid volume equal to 8 pints or 4.54ltr
Liquid volume equal to 0.83 UK gallon or 3.79ltr
Sl weight equal to 1,000 gram (me)s or 2.2lbs
Sl length equal to 1,000m or 1,094 yards
One nautical mile per hour/1.85kmph/1.15mph
Sl liquid volume equal to 1,000cc or 0.22gal
Length equal to 100cm or 1.09yards
Length equal to 5,180ft or 1.60km
Nautical mile (UK)
Length of 6,080ft or 1.85km
Liquid volume equal to 20 fluid ounces or 0.568ltr
Liquid volume equal to 16 fluid ounces or 0.359ltr
Weight equal to 16 ounces or 0.453kg
Length of 5,280ft or 0.57 nautical mile or 0.621km. See also nautical mile.
Mass equal to 2,280lbs or 1,016kg/1.016 tonnes. Commonly known as a long or gross ton.
Mass equal to 2,000lbs or 907.20kg/0.907 tonnes. Commonly known as a short ton.
One ton transported one mile.
Sl mass equal to 1,000kg or 2,280lbs.
One tonne transported one kilometer.
Aircraft, crew, maintenance and insurance.
ABOVE GROUND LEVEL
Aircraft on ground.
Aircraft prepared for service.
Auxiliary power unit.
AIRPORT RADAR SURVEILLANCE AREA
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
All up weight.
Commonwealth of independent states.
C of A
Certificate of independent states.
Company owned material.
Decibels a weighted
Distance Measuring Equipment
Emergency power unit.
Extended power unit.
Extended range twin (engine) operations.
Federal Aviation Administration (USA).
Federal Aviation Regulation (USA).
Foreign Object Damage.
Ground power unit.
International Air Transport Association.
International Civil Aviation Organization.
Instrument Flight Rules
Maximum Landing Weight.
Maximum Ramp weight.
Mean Sea Level
Maximum Take off weight.
Maximum Zero fuel weight.
North American free trade association.
Nose cargo door.
Noise Compatibility Program
Nondirectional Ratio Beacon
Noise Exposure Map
Notice to Airmen.
Prior Permission Required
Side cargo door.
Single-Event Noise Exposure Level
Special Federal Air Regulation
system international a.k.a. metric.
Tactical Air Navigation
Threshold Crossing Height
Traffic Pattern Altitude
(Aircraft) Unit load device.
Visual Flight Rules
Very High Frequency Omindirectional Radial Range
Collocated VOR and TACAN Facility
ZULU (Universal) Time